Jack Allen and Carl M. Black M.D.
Purpose: To compare treatment outcomes in patients with pelvic venous congestion following embolization in the presence or absence of venous compression or the left renal or common iliac veins.
Methods & Procedures: This is a retrospective study performed at IVC Interventional Vascular & Vein Center (IVC). Data was reviewed from n=339 consecutive female patients treated for pelvic venous congestion at the IVC. Patients without CT scans were removed from the study and the final number of patients reviewed was n=193. CT scans were used to measure the maximum and minimum dimensions of the left renal vein and the left common iliac vein, as well as the maximum dimensions of bilateral ovarian and adnexal veins. Patients completed a visual analog pain scale (VAS) prior to and out to six months following embolization.
Results: Study is ongoing. Results are pending.
Hypothesis: Compression of the left renal or common iliac vein are independent predictors of clinical outcome following embolization.
Discussion: Results from this study may answer potential questions such as: What is the most effective treatment for patients presenting with pelvic venous congestion and concurrent venous compression? How does venous compression impact the clinical efficacy of embolization?
Lars Anderson III, Mark C. Belk, Noah Larsen, Jacob Moore, Ian Reid, and Haley Wiser
Quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are both rapidly growing species among many regions on the planet and have recently invaded the eastern and western coast and the inland lakes and rivers of the United States (Matthews et al. 2014, 23 42). These mussels go through an annual process of reproduction each year that produces millions of larval veligers . This early form of mussels is planktonic and is capable of passing through narrow water filtration facilities. (Grutters et al. 2012, 121). Once they settle and reach their adult age, they begin attaching to the nearest substrates which include underwater sediment and boats. Unfortunately, for some boats, the build up of mussels on the boat’s hull can lead to cooling systems clogging up and malfunctioning, thus rendering them useless. To combat this, some manufacturers have designed boats with copper and nickel alloy bases as studies have shown that mussels do not favor these types of surfaces. However, boats with these metals are very expensive for the average person to buy (Dormon et al. 1996, 276 283). One major solution is focusing on the problem at the source by using deterrents where they travel downstream. If this can prove successful, then mussel invasion should see an overall decrease on an annual basis (Hagenau et al. 2011, 339 347).
Emma E. Barry, Derek D. Houston, Peter J. Maughan, and Mark C. Belk
We evaluated the effect of culling behavior and satellite individuals on parentage of a brood by resident N. orbicollis pairs. Parentage of individuals in each brood was determined using a SNP library for N. orbicollis and COLONY software. Culling had no effect on resident pair parentage. The presence of satellites had a significant effect on brood parentage by the resident pair. Our results imply that culling is not a mechanism by which resident beetles ensure parentage among offspring.
Jacob Callister, Richard Robison, Porter Richards, and Benjamin Ogilvie
Poster Design 3rd Place Award Winner
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a gramnegative, opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for over 30,000 hospitalized infections per year. Though this number pales compared to many other pathogens, this increasingly drug-resistant bacteria primarily affects those with weakened immune systems and is responsible for many nosocomial (hospital acquired) infections. Studies have shown that using antibiotics or disinfectants in combination decreases a pathogen’s ability to become resistant.1 For this reason, any new disinfectants that are proven effective will help combat the rise of disinfectant resistant pathogens. In this study, we examine several Young Living essential oils’ (EOs) ability to eradicate planktonic cultures of P. aeruginosa.
Lexie Chamberlain, Trevor J. Williams, Alli G. Duffy, and Jerald B. Johnson
The evolutionary process of speciation occurs when a population is separated biologically. Speciation can develop in either a non-overlapping or overlapping geographical area which is called an allopatric or sympatric speciation event, respectively.
We have discovered a novel phenomenon where two different species of fish in the tropical genus Brachyrahaphis, B. rhabdophora and B. terrabensis, coexist in the same population. B. terrabensis has been found to also coexists with another species, B. roseni (Ingley 2014), making this a unique system with multiple combinations of different closely-related species cooccurring.
We hypothesized that sympatric populations would diverge from allopatric populations due to competition. We used geometric morphometrics, the measurement of the fusiform body shape of fish, to quantify shape variation between allopatric and sympatric populations which will allow us to determine if and how competition is working on these species.
Nolan Cole, Kevin Adams, and Steven M. Johnson Ph.D.
Identifying the epigenetic mechanisms at play within cell-types is one of the early steps in understanding crucial differences between healthy and diseased cells. Peripheral blood monocytes play a crucial role in both the innate and adaptive immune system. We explore differences that exists within the epigenetic profiles of human monocytes based on sex. To determine if chromatin accessibility is sexually dimorphic, we collected blood samples from 6 volunteer adults (3 men and 3 women). Monocytes were then isolated from each volunteer. The ATAC-seq protocol was followed, and data analysis was performed. The results of this analysis will determine to what extent chromatin accessibility of human monocytes is impacted by sex. These differences could have implications for therapeutics targeting the immune system.
Hayden Dennis, B. Van Alfen, H. Lee, U. H. Mitchell, A. E. Bowden, and M. K. Seeley
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common surgical procedure , requiring substantial post-surgical rehabilitation. Currently, it is difficult to know precisely concerning quality and quantity of rehabilitative exercises performed by TKA patients outside of the physical therapy clinic . The ultimate goal of this line of research is to leverage a novel sensing technology, we recently developed, to create an inexpensive sensing system for out-of-clinic use by TKA patients. The first step in this research process and the purpose of this study was to characterize lower extremity motion during two common post-TKA exercises (knee flexion and straight leg raise (SLR)) in an older healthy population.
Heather Evans and Timothy Jenkins
- Each cell tissue has a specific epigenetic signature that can be used to produce accurate age predictions of the individual that the tissue sample is taken from.
- An important attribute of the utility of these epigenetic age calculations is the reliability and clinical utility of the identified signal.
- To determine if epigenetic age predictions can be used to predict semen and/ or embryo quality.
Anna C. Everett, Joakim W. Ronström, Brayden M. Tolman, Hillary A. Wadsworth, and Jordan T. Yorgason
Determine the enzymatic kinetics of the dopamine transporter (DAT).
The Dopamine Transporter (DAT) & Addiction
- The DAT is responsible for the reuptake of dopamine.
- It is also a major binding target for psychostimulants such as cocaine, which causes an increase of dopamine in the brain.
- Dopamine efflux can ultimately lead to addiction.
Camille Garner and Byron Adams
The McMurdo Dry Valleys are one of the few relatively ice free regions in Antarctica and are the focus of a long term ecological research program for the National Science Foundation (see figure 1). Because of the extreme conditions and relatively simple ecosystems, the region serves as an indicator for the effects of climate change and an ideal venue for understanding community environment interactions. In past years, temperature data from the nearby Lake Hoare met station was used for the entire surrounding area; this study seeks to improve understanding of temperature patterns in the region by providing the first valley specific temperature data from Garwood Valley, Miers Valley, and Taylor Valley.
Benjamin T. Geary, Savanah R. Fahning, and Bryan G. Hopkins
Poster Design Peer Choice Award Winner
• Nitrogen (N) is an essential plant nutrient (most commonly deficient)
- Makes up about half of global fertilizer sales
- N use efficiency is low, much is lost to atmosphere leached into water
• Environmental concerns: greenhouse gases, reactive gaseous N, water quality
• Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEF) should:
- Increase N uptake by plants
- Reduce environmental impacts of N fertilizers
- Maintain or improve crop yield/quality
- Be affordable (generally have higher cost, but needs to be offset by reduced rates and/or increased crop value)
Madison Gray, Israel Guerrero, Antonio Solis Leal, Richard Robison, Brad Bruges, and Brett Pickett
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been an enigma for decades before the 2005 epidemic in India and 2015 in the Western Hemisphere. CHIKV infects 1.1 million people per year in 113 countries around the world. ( Yactayo , Staples, Millot , Cibrelus , & Ramon Pardo, 2016). Chikungunya virus is an arbovirus spread through Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors. The name ‘chikungunya’ means ‘that which bends up’ termed after the assumed posture of suffering patients. Patients who are infected with CHIKV could contract life altering arthralgia and myalgia. As of today, there is no cure, treatment, or vaccine for most alphaviruses.
Chikungunya virus is an enveloped positive sense single stranded RNA virus with an incubation period of 1 to 12 days. Recent research on CHIKV indicates human macrophages contribute to successful virus replication. A rapid immune response is stimulated after the virus is transferred to a human. In response, macrophages begin phagocytosing CHIKV, which induces macrophage apoptosis. Macrophages infected with CHIKV experience increased expression of MHC and co stimulatory molecules (Nayak et al., 2017). The sudden apoptosis of the strained macrophage catalyzes the spread of the virus in the body. The question that remains is when, during the course of infection, does the macrophage generate apoptosis signals? Understanding when the infection tipping point occurs can provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis for Chikungunya virus, enabling the development of effective prophylactics, therapeutics, and/or vaccines. U937*
Quenla Haehnel and Alice Ann Crandall Ph.D.
Families play an important role in the wellbeing of the individual and the community (Hanson et al., 2019; Garris & Weber, 2018; Schumann & Mosley, 1994). As such, it is of interest to investigate the factors that contribute to making families healthy. With the development of a new family health scale (Weiss-Laxer et al., 2020; Crandall et al., N.D.), such analyses are now made possible. Using three indicators to measure both objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES), this study investigated the relationship between individual SES and family health.
Matt Holdaway, Nick Bever, Noah Valentine, and Jeff Edwards
- An estimated six million Americans suffer from neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Dementia (Alzheimer's Association, 2021). Studying the brain in the context of synaptic plasticity, or how the brain changes and adapts, can shed new light on the effects of aging and these forgetting disorders.
- Long-term potentiation is the strengthening of synapses and is correlated with learning and memory. Depotentiation is the weakening of synapses and is correlated with “forgetting." Understanding these two opposing processes may be helpful in learning more about the inner workings of the brain.
- There are several factors that may affect depotentiation, including the age of the brain, the types of neuronal membrane receptors involved, and the duration of LTP prior to depotentiation. Using electrophysiology, we are investigating the role these factors play in "forgetting.”
A Single-Cell Bioinformatics Analysis of the Host Transcriptional Response to Infection Consisting of Natural Combinations of Influenza A Virus Gene Segments
Jacquelyne Howell, Caroline Jackson, Tiana M. Scott, Anice C. Lowen, Gene S. Tan, and Brett E. Pickett
Influenza A viruses (IAV) have a segmented, negative-sense RNA genome (complementary to RNA transcript) that is composed of eight segments, which code for the structural and nonstructural genes needed for viral infection and replication. Although each of these segments play a specific role, past experiments have shown that not all segments are expressed within infected cells, requiring multiple viruses to enter a cell to produce a productive infection.
Erik S. Johnson, Mary-Elise Johnson, and Jerald B. Johnson
Poster Design 2nd Place Award Winner
Is behavioral lateralization in fish related to morphological asymmetry?
We address this question in a livebearing fish species that shows a unique form of morphological asymmetry. The species Xenophallus umbratilis exhibits a mating morphology where the male gonopodium—a structure used to inseminate females—terminates with either a dextral (right-handed) or sinistral (left-handed) corkscrew (Figure 1). We think that this might be related to a phenomenon in which individuals show a lateral bias in eye use to approach stimuli, a form of behavioral lateralization.
Lexanne Klimes, Laura S. Fletcher, Nicole Thometz, and Blaine D. Griffen
To determine the optimal reproductive strategies that a female sea otter should employ based on her age, body condition, and available food resources using a dynamic state variable model.
Female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have uniquely high energetic demands imposed on them due to high metabolic rates, minimal energy reserves, and annual reproductive cycles with almost no time lapse between weaning and pregnancy (Thometz et al. 2014, Jameson and Johnson 1993). These high energetic demands come with reproductive trade-offs, and in order to maximize survival and future reproductive success, female sea otters occasionally choose to wean their pups early or abandon their pups. This choice may depend on several factors. The longer a female provides milk for her pup, the more her body condition deteriorates, so early weaning or pup abandonment may improve the female’s chances for survival and future reproductive success. However, earlier weaning and pup abandonment significantly decrease the pup’s chance of survival (Thometz et al. 2014). This study will use a dynamic state variable model to determine the optimum reproductive strategy a female should employ based on her age, body condition, and the quality of the environment.
Austen M. Lambert, David L. Cole, D. Taylor Heidenreich, Samuel H. Stapley, Rachel L. Buck, and Bryan G. Hopkins
- Need: Nutrient deficiency symptoms and concentrations in quinoa plants as reference material for farmers to help them maximize their yields.
- Problem: Difficult to manipulate nutrient concentrations in soils. Many hydroponic recipes use dual-nutrient compounds creating interactions.
- Solution: Create a new recipe with each nutrient added in a single nutrient compound and use it to record nutrient deficiency symptoms in quinoa.
Novel HIV-1 Treatment through CRISPR Technology utilizing dual guide RNA Novel HIV-1 Treatment through CRISPR Technology utilizing dual guide RNA
Daniel Magaoay, Mary Tidwell, and Bradford K. Berges Ph.D.
We propose a treatment for HIV-1 by developing a system that gives infected cells the ability to recognize and destroy the integrated HIV-1 genome. Previous studies have shown that through the guide RNA directed CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system, complete virus inactivation can be achieved in cultures T cells1. HIV has been known to escape a single antiviral gRNA by mutation of the specific sequence that is targeted1. This is why, in our approach, we use a dual guide RNA system that targets the viruses highly conserved TatRev and Gag1 genes. It has been shown that this combination of combinatorial gRNA completely sterilizes HIV-1 in a T cell infection1. Our goal is to take this dual gRNA directed CRISPR-Cas9 system a step further with our humanized mouse model. Engraftment of human immune cells into immunodeficient mice has developed as a cutting-edge technology that few researchers in the world know how to use. We are using the methods of transfection and transduction to give human hematopoietic stem cells the dual gRNA CRISPR-Cas9 system to recognize the integrated HIV-1 genome and cut it out of the human genome. We plan to inject these HSC’s into immunodeficient mice, and infect the mouse model with HIV-1. We expect to see complete inactivation and sterilization of HIV-1, preventing the virus from causing disease.
Sticking the Landing: Comparing shod vs barefoot landing kinetics and foot muscle characteristics of female gymnasts and cheerleaders
Dallin I. McLean; Kelsey R. Garner MS, ATC; Mark T. Olsen MS; Sarah T. Ridge PhD; Dustin A. Bruening PhD; and A. Wayne Johnson PT, PhD
- Gymnasts and cheerleaders both need to control landings and stabilize quickly, athletic tasks that heavily involve the foot
- These sports have similar elements (tumbling, drop landings, body positions), but different foot conditions (ground surface, use of shoes)
- A comparison of athletes in both sports could give insight to the role of the foot during landings
G. H. Memmott and S. M. Thygerson
In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) set guidelines deciding what the standard for emergency care is on the world stage. Now that two years have past countries need to be assessed to determine compliance to these standards. The question we wanted to answer was if international Emergency Medial Systems (EMS) are meeting the WHO standards (organized dispatch system, basic life support, a way to transport patients, and a receiving emergency department) and if they are also meeting the gold standard (as defined by professionals which will be listed in results).
Zachary Moore, Colin Kemberling, Spencer Barlow, Erin Saito, and Jeffrey Edwards PhD
Video Presentation 1st Place Award Winner
The ketogenic or “keto” diet could significantly change the brain’s learning process. The keto diet is a low-carb, high-fat weight loss diet that has historically been used to treat seizures in people with epilepsy . Nowadays, scientists are exploring mechanisms behind its potential medical benefits. Normally, the brain uses glucose derived from carbohydrates for energy. However, under fasting and starvation conditions, the body enters a state of fat breakdown called ketosis. While in ketosis, the brain uses a fatty acid derived ketone molecule called Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB, Fig. 1) as an alternative fuel source. In addition to supplying the brain’s energy demands, BHB also enhances the expression of a molecule called Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) , an important modulator in a synapse strengthening process called Long-Term Potentiation (LTP). Higher levels of BHB have also been correlated with increases in cognition in memory-impaired adults . Our current objectives are to induce ketosis in mice through a ketogenic diet, and study the effects of BHB on LTP. Ultimately, we want to explore if the keto diet can be used to enhance learning and memory, and prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
M. L.B. Novilla, V. Moxley, J. Glenn, C. L. Hanson, P. Donoso, J. Smith, A. Redelfs, L. K. Novilla, S. Stone, and R. Lafitaga
Health care professionals have long been recognized for their dedication and compassion in providing care. But COVID-19 could be a game changer.
The pandemic brings an entirely new set of challenges to those working on the frontlines that could render them vulnerable to job burnout, depression, and anxiety.
Ayden Olsen, Craig Reeves, Emily Hill, and Jason Adams PhD
- Preserving human tissue is important in many different fields including the burial of the deceased, forensics, and education.
- For education, human cadavers and cadaveric specimens are expensive, but they continue to be an effective learning tool and are widely used by medical training programs for physicians, medical scientists, nurses, and anatomists.
- The costs for an anatomy lab can be minimized if they are protected with preserving formulas so they can be utilized for longer periods of time.
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