Title (Spanish)

Relacion entre parasitosis intestinal con servicios basicos y estado nutricional en ninos menores de cinco anos, en la etnia indigena, negra y mestiza del area rural de la provincia de imbabura, 1998-1999

Abstract

The parasitosis in the tropical countries like Ecuador, are found in the different population groups of all ages, sexes, social conditions, ethnic groups, especially in those without hygienic conditions, pertaining to different geographic zones and the prevalence varies in agreement with the ecology, the human factors and the social economic characteristics. The fecal contamination on land and water where an adequate disposition of excretes, the surrounding conditions, the deficient living conditions, the rural life, the absence of bathrooms, the custom to not use shoes and to have contact with the water. The deficiency of hygienic education, contamination of foods and human migration all favor intestinal parasites. The parasitic plague in Ecuador and especially in the province of Imbabura is not very well known, this is because of the little attention and economical means that are given to an investigation. This investigation clearly points out the different concepts, definitions, consequences, treatments and prophylaxis that the community should take into account. This investigative work was done in the rural area of the Imbabura province for the following ethnic groups: Indigenous, Black, and Mestizo, with children younger than five years old and it is directed to the health personnel, and students It is estimated that in the whole world more than 20 million people are infected by the "himenolepsis" parasite. The Intestinal parasite has a direct relation with the Nutritional state of any given country, as well as the basic services, like water, collection of trash, elimination of excretes, illiteracy, bad family hygiene habits, and a healthy environment. This is how 40 thousand children die of hunger in the world daily, the difference here is an American child eats 500 times more than third world child. The lack of interest by the governments both international and national in health Programs in rural zones, impedes a solution being found. 50% of investigations are dedicated to the advancements in military, which also influences the lack of water, 3 billion people in the world lack drinkable water. There are many forms of exposure to the parasite, including, ground (garbage or trash left on floor) or contaminated water, contaminated food, biting insects, domestic or wild animals which have the parasite, another person, and their clothes or bed sheets. The most common of these being contaminated water. There are many reasons these parasites are found in higher numbers in third world countries. The lack of healthiness in the rural population increases the intestinal parasite in children under five years old, the lack of knowledge by part of the mothers on the consequences of the intestinal parasites. Bad hygiene habits that the mothers have as well as the children under five years old in not washing their hands before eating and after using the restroom add to the rapid spread of the parasite. The nutritional state of the children greatly increases exposure, mostly concerning food preparation. The presence of intestinal parasites in the children under five years old does the same damage with no importance to age, race, or sex. The bad form in which excretes are eliminated in the town also contributes to parasite spreading. To fight against further parasite spreading it is advised that a program of investigation is applied with many disciplinary teams including: Doctors, Epidemists, Microbiologists, Anthropologist, Nutritionists, and nurses to study and help find solution for the well-being of the areas that most need it. To also help, it is advised that Nutritionists, Nurses, Doctors, and people who have direct knowledge of what is health, capacitate the leaders of the community and citizens on the basic hygiene norms, including preparation and manipulation of foods, consequences and ways to prevent parasites. This would help slow the rapid spread of parasites among youth as well as adults. Have meetings teaching proper use of bathrooms both private and public in rural areas, to avoid massive parasite contamination. It is important to teach families that they should treat the water before drinking it because water has a direct link with parasite spreading. Demand that government pay more attention to health issues in rural communities.

Abstract (Spanish)

La Parasitosis en los paí­ses tropicales como el Ecuador, se encuentran en los diferentes grupos poblacionales de toda edad, sexo, condición social , etnia, especialmente en aquellos sin normas higiénicas, pertenecientes a diferentes zonas geográficas y la prevalencia varia en consonancia con la ecologí­a, con los factores humanos y las caracterí­sticas socioeconómicos. La contaminación fecal por tierra y agua en donde no existe una adecuada disposición de excretas, las condiciones ambientales, las deficientes condiciones de las viviendas, la vida rural, la ausencia de letrinas, la costumbre de no usar zapatos y de tener contacto con el agua. Las deficiencias en higiene y educación, contaminación de alimentos y migraciones humanas favorecen el parasitismo intestinal. La epidemiologí­a parasitaria en el Ecuador y en especial en la provincia de Imbabura no es muy conocida, por la poca atención medios económicos que representa una investigación de este tipo. Por tal razón el desarrollo del presente da a conocer en forma clara los diferentes conceptos, definiciones, consecuencias, tratamiento y profilaxis que se deben tomar en cuenta en la comunidad. Este trabajo de Investigación se realizó en el área rural de la provincia de Imbabura en las etnias: Indígena, Negra y Mestiza, en los niños menores de cinco años y está dirigido al Personal de Salud, Estudiantes de Nutrición y Enfermería con la finalidad de conocer el tí­po de parásito que predomina en cada una de las etnias y sus consecuencias que pueden ocasionar a futuro. Esta investigación está sustentada en una revisión bibliográfica, un trabajo de campo en el área rural, exámenes coproparasitarios en los niños seleccionados, realizados en los laboratorios de CEMOPLAF. La provincia de Imbabura es una de las más hermosas, por la variedad, el calor y la armoní­a de sus paisajes que presentan sus diversas regiones, además por la fertilidad de sus territorios en todas las zonas. Imbabura prácticamente produce todos los frutos, desde los de climas fríos hasta los subtropicales. Las llanuras de temperaturas benignas entre los rí­os Blanco y Tahuando fiahuando son los más aptos para la agricultura. Para la fertilidad de Imbabura, cooperan decisivamente los ricos sistemas fluviales del Ambi, del Tahuando, del Chota que bañan profusamente las comarcas de Otavalo, Cotacachi, Ibarra. (1). Con el volcán Imbabura que da nombre a la provincia de Imbabura, los de mayor significación son el Cotacachi con 4968 m. y el Yanahurco con 4556 m., Imbabura es la provincia de los lagos, tiene ocho majestuosas lagunas diseminadas, tanto en las mesetas de la cordillera como en la llanura y de las faldas de las montañas. Por sus características únicas esta región mantiene un alto nivel de visitantes gracias a la belleza de sus lagos y valles, el rico folklore con sus ferias artesanales y sus alicientes turí­sticos.

Rights

http://lib.byu.edu/about/copyright/

Date Submitted

2000

Document Type

Thesis

Handle

http://hdl.lib.byu.edu/1877/etdm893

First Advisor

Carlos Velez

Keywords

Parasites, Nutrition disorders in children, Imbabura (Ecuador)

Language

Spanish

Additional Information

Tesis previs a la obtencion del titulo de licenciado en nutricion y dietetica, Universidad Technica del Norte, Facultad Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de Nutricion y Dietetica

Coverage

Imbabura (Ecuador)

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