The weevil Scaphomorphus trivittatus (Say) was found in close association with Astragalus praelongus var. elliseae (Rydb.) and Astragalus asclepiadoides (Jones) in selenium-containing soils in Carbon County, Utah. The weevils fed on roots of the Astragalus species and formed soil cocoons, which were attached to the tap roots. The weevils pupated and developed into adults in these cocoons over the fall and winter and then emerged in the spring. The plants and soil cocoons contained highly elevated levels of selenium compared to the soils. The weevils, in contrast, differed little from the soils in selenium content.
Hooper, Gary R. and Holdaway, Boyd F.
"Observations on an association between the weevil Scaphomorphus trivittatus (Say) and two Astragalus species on selenium-rich soils in Carbon County, Utah,"
Western North American Naturalist: Vol. 67
, Article 14.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/wnan/vol67/iss4/14