Bruneau hot springsnail density, size class structure, recruitment, and mortality were measured monthly over approximately 2 years and compared to environmental variables at 3 hot spring sites in southwestern Idaho. Food resources (attached algae) and water chemistry were similar among sites, but temperature, population density, and size structure differed significantly. Density was highest at a warm, fairly constant temperature site. A cooler, highly variable temperature site and a site where temperatures frequently approached or exceeded thermal maxima tolerance limits had lower densities. Size class structure varied seasonally and distinctly among sites, with recruitment occurring year-round at temperatures <36 °C. Mortality affected different size classes at different sites, with smaller snails incurring greatest mortality at site 3 (highest temperature variability). Growth rates were positively correlated with temperatures up to 36 °C. Mean snail size differed among sites and also appeared to be related to temperature, with the variable temperature sites having larger snails. Although these snail populations are found in a range of water temperatures, they appear best adapted to springs with mean temperatures between 32 °C and 33 °C and low thermal variance.
Mladenka, Greg C. and Minshall, G. Wayne
"Variation in the life history and abundance of three popluations of Bruneau hot springsnails (Pyrgulopsis bruneauensis),"
Western North American Naturalist: Vol. 61:
2, Article 7.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/wnan/vol61/iss2/7