The Inventory of Father Involvement: A Pilot Study of a New Measure of Father Involvement


father involvement, fathering, parenting measures


As the study of fathering has matured in recent years, fathering scholars have recognized the need for richer, broader measures of the construct of father involvement (Hawkins & Palkovitz, 1999). In an effort to create a measure sensitive to affective, cognitive, and direct and indirect behavioral components of involvement, 100 items were initially generated. Of these, 43 were selected for the “Inventory of Father Involvement” (IFI). Fathers (N = 723) reported on “how good a job” they were doing on the 43 indicators of father involvement. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded nine relatively distinct first-order factors, indicating a single, global second-order factor of father involvement. The final model confirms a shorter, 26-item version of the IFI that reflects a multi-dimensional concept of father involvement.

Original Publication Citation

Hawkins, A. J., Bradford, K. P., Christiansen, S. L., Palkovitz, R., Day, R. D., & Call, R. A. (2002). The Inventory of Father Involvement: A pilot study of a new measure of father involvement. Journal of Men's Studies, 10(2), 183-196.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


The Journal of Men's Studies




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Family Life

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor