wheat flour, lipid stability, lipase inactivation, antioxidant rentention


The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dry heat, steam, and microwave treatments in decreasing lipase activity, while retaining antioxidant activity, to stabilize whole wheat flour against lipid degradation during storage. Bran was heat-treated in 230-g batches using four levels (exposure times) for each of the three treatment methods. Lipase activity and antioxidant activity were quantified for all treatment combinations. None of the treatments significantly decreased antioxidant activity; the levels determined to be optimal, inasmuch as further heating did not significantly decrease lipase activity, were 25 min of dry heat, 60 sec of microwave (1000W), and 60 sec of steam. These treatments effectively decreased lipase activity by 74, 93, and 96%, respectively. Optimum treatments were evaluated for acceptance using a consumer sensory panel during a 12-month storage period. No significant differences in acceptance were found between the control and any of the samples either at baseline or after storage. This suggests that whole wheat flour can be stabilized against lipolysis by utilizing the treatments described in this study without decreasing antioxidant activity, and that manufacturers may utilize these treatments without risking decreased consumer acceptance.

Original Publication Citation

Rose DJ, Ogden LV, Dunn ML, and Pike O.A. "Enhanced lipid stability in whole wheat flour by lipase inactivation and antioxidant retention." Cereal Chemistry. 85.2 (28): 218-223.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


American Association of Cereal Chemists




Life Sciences


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science