synthetic vocal folds, stress-strain, linear, nonlinear


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching.
Method: Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon), fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon, and F0 at 0.20 kPa above Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models.
Results: Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length.
Conclusions: Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response.

Original Publication Citation

Shaw, S.M., Thomson, S.L., Dromey, C. & Smith, S. (2012). Frequency response of synthetic vocal fold models with linear and nonlinear material properties. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55, 1395-1406.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association




David O. McKay School of Education


Communication Disorders