During 1995–1997 we conducted a white pine blister rust (WPBR) disease survey in white pines of the Intermountain West. Incidence of WPBR in white pines was 59% overall, 73% in the northern Rocky Mountains, 55% in the middle Rocky Mountains, and 67% in the Sierra Nevada sample stands. Intensity within infected stands averaged 35% and ranged from 2% to 100%. Southward spread of the disease along the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains appears to have slowed or stopped, and the disease was found at the northern and western edges of, but not within, the Great Basin region. Smaller-diameter trees infected with WPBR sustained more severe damage than larger-diameter trees. Mortality and top kill caused by WPBR were very low across the entire study area, but incidence and intensity of the disease appear to have increased substantially in the northern and middle Rocky Mountains since the 1960s.
Smith, Jonathan P. and Hoffman, James T.
"Status of white pine blister rust in the Intermountain West,"
Western North American Naturalist: Vol. 60
, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/wnan/vol60/iss2/6