Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Calenberg was a princess born on April 8, 1526 in Nienover. She was the oldest child of Duke Eric I of Brunswick-Calenberg and Elizabeth, daughter of elector Joachim I of Brandenburg. She married Count Georg Ernst von Henneberg on August 19, 1543; the match benefitted Georg well, as it connected him with a distinguished Protestant German house. They were married for 23 years, but had no children.
Elisabeth was devoted to charity work and played a role in converting the county of Henneberg to Protestantism. She died on August 19, 1566 in Schleusingen.