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Mass balance, Salinity, advection, base flow


Mass balance calculations carried out for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and HCO3 for the study area showed that the major source of contamination is through non-point sources. It is also observed that the river water quality during the non-monsoon season (February, 2000) almost resembles with the groundwater quality of the adjoining aquifer. However, during post-monsoon period (October, 1999) a wide variation was found between groundwater and surface water quality which can be attributed to the movement of fertilizers and agricultural ashes with monsoon flows reaching the stream along with overland flow. The major source of contamination in the Malaprabha river was found to be due to the non-point sources (more than 90%). An immediate attention from the concerned authorities is required in order to protect the land from further salinization.