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Abstract

Mindfulness can be a meaningful practice across different stages of life: it can help improve well-being for young children (Becker & Whitaker, 2018; Esmaeilian et al., 2018; Li et al., 2019), adolescents (Leavitt et al., 2020; Oppo et al., 2019), and adults (Berk et al., 2018; Pierson et al., 2019). Mindfulness is the act of clearing the mind, being present, and paying attention with the intent to improve well-being (Greeson et al., 2014). Mindfulness began as a common Buddhist practice, but in the 1970s Jon Kabat-Zinn created mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in an attempt to aid mental health issues (Greeson et al., 2014 ; Hatchard et al., 2017). He defines mindfulness as “paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally” (Kabat-Zinn, 1994, p. 4).

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