Tungsten/carbon (W/C) multilayer thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. All samples consisted of 30 layer pairs with a nominal d-spacing varying from 2.5 to 14 nm, the W layer thickness was kept at 2 nm in all samples. The W/C multilayers were subjected to isochronal anneals in a quartz tube furnace at the temperature range from 500 to 950 °C under a flow of high purity Ar gas. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and Auger depth profile were used to characterize the structure of the as-prepared and annealed multilayer films. Both the W and C layers appear to be amorphous as-prepared. An overcoat of 30 nm of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride was found to inhibit oxidation during annealing. For those multilayers containing thinner carbon layers (<1 nm), the formation of crystalline W2C occurs at annealing temperature as low as 500 °C and a very small expansion (<2%) in the layer d spacing is observed. On the other hand, for all multilayers with carbon layer thickness equal or greater than 2 nm, crystallization occurs at much higher annealing temperatures and the crystalline phases observed were alpha-W and WC. It is also observed that in the latter group the period increases monotonically with increasing annealing temperature, the total expansion is about 10% and affects both W and C layers approximately equally. The expansion stops at the crystallization temperature which occurs at 900 °C or higher. The expansion is under investigation but may be interpreted as due to the structural ordering processes in the amorphous W and C layers.

Original Publication Citation

The following article appeared in J. González-Hernández, B.S. Chao, D.A. Pawlik, D.D. Allred, and Qi Wang, "Characterization of as-prepared and annealed W/C multilayer thin films," Journal of Vacuum Science Technology 1(1), 145 151 (1992). and may be found at [http://avspublications.org/jvsta/resource/1/jvtad6/v1/i1/p145_s1][http://dx.doi.org/1.1116/1.578127].

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Peer-Reviewed Article

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American Vacuum Society




Physical and Mathematical Sciences


Physics and Astronomy