Coal, Soot, Model


A semiempirical model has been developed for predicting coal-derived soot. The main feature of the model is a transport equation for soot mass fraction. Tar prediction options include either an empirical or a transport equation approach, which directly impacts the source term for soot formation. Also, the number of soot particles per unit mass of gas may be calculated using either a transport equation or an assumed average. Kinetics are based on Arrhenius rates taken from published measurements. Radiative properties are calculated as a function of averaged optical constants, predicted gas temperatures, predicted gas densities, and the soot mass fractions. This model has been incorporated into a comprehensive coal modeling code and evaluated based on comparisons with soot, temperature, and NOx measurements for three experimental cases. Accurate predictions of soot yields have been achieved for both laminar and turbulent coal flames. Larger scale turbulent predictions illustrated that inclusion of a soot model changed the local gas temperatures by as much as 300 K and the local NOx concentration by as much as 250 ppm. These predictions demonstrate the necessity for an accurate soot model in coal combustion systems.

Original Publication Citation

Brown, A. L. and T. H. Fletcher, “Modeling Soot Derived from Pulverized Coal,” Energy and Fuels, 12, 745-757 (1998). DOI: 10.1021/ef9702207

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



American Chemical Society




Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering


Chemical Engineering

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor