coal, coal conversion models, coal particle heating


Coal is, and will remain for the foreseeable future, a critical energy production resource. Advanced models of coal conversion behavior in air and oxy-coal environments enhance the boiler operational efficiency and design optimization. Although coal conversion models have continuously improved over decades of research, not all aspects of coal particle heating and conversion have received equal treatment. Coal particle annealing is one aspect of the coal conversion process that is simultaneously highly sensitive to the conversion environment, exceptionally impactful on coal chemistry, and frequently neglected in coal models. However, the current body of literature has explored numerous aspects of coal annealing and has shed much light on a complex subject. This review fulfills two purposes: (1) to highlight quantitative observations from the literature and (2) to compile and make conveniently available a clean collection of literature data to facilitate future annealing models.

Original Publication Citation

Holland, T., T. H. Fletcher, and O. Seneca, “Review of Carbonaceous Annealing Effects on O2 and CO2 Coal Reactivity,” Energy and Fuels, 33, 10415−10434 (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b02698

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



ACS Publications




Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering


Chemical Engineering

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor