factor analysis, instrument validation, nursing leaders, organizational learning research instruments


Aim: To develop a valid, reliable research instrument to measure mechanisms associated with organisational learning in hospitals.

Background: A valid, reliable instrument for measuring mechanisms of organisational learning would enable nurse leaders and researchers to improve health care through facilitation and study of organisational learning.

Methods: The Organizational Learning in Hospitals model was used as a framework to develop the Organizational Learning Instrument-Mechanisms. Cognitive interviews and expert reviews were used to refine and evaluate item-level and scale-level content validity. The instrument was distributed by email to a random sample of nurses working in inpatient hospitals in Utah (n = 1253). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity, and coefficient alpha was used to assess internal reliability.

Results: Item-level content validity scores were .88 to 1.0, and scale-level content validity was .98 (maximum score = 1.0). Standardized factor loadings were .539-.956, with model fit statistics as follows: comparative fit index (CFI) = .975, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .973 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .059. Coefficient alpha scores were .77-.95 for the instrument's five factors.

Conclusions: Initial testing indicates the Organizational Learning Instrument-Mechanisms has adequate levels of reliability, content validity and construct validity.

Implications for nursing management: Hospital leaders and researchers may begin using this instrument to improve and study the mechanisms of organisational learning in hospital units.

Original Publication Citation

Lyman, B., Smith, E. L., & George, K. C. (2022). Mechanisms of organizational learning in hospitals: An instrument development study. Journal of Nursing Management. 30(4), 1069-1077.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Journal of Nursing Management





University Standing at Time of Publication

Associate Professor