vanadium, electron beam melting, supply chain


The vanadium industry has experienced significant change over the last two decades with the emergence of vanadium redox flow batteries for grid-level energy storage, the growing demand for high-strength steel, and the selection of vanadium as a critical material in multiple countries. This review presents the status of the vanadium industry examining production processes and detailing facilities. The available information for each producer is presented including vanadium products and capacity. The production of pure vanadium is identified as a potential vulnerability for some nations where vanadium metal is needed in small, yet strategic, applications and globally only two producers of pure V were identified. One potential method to produce pure V is electron beam melt refining. Exploratory electron beam melt refining trials were performed on kilogram quantities of master (V-Al) alloys from the aerospace industry to explore the use of commercially available vanadium alloys to produce pure vanadium metal with minimal processing, as a means to mitigate potential risks.

Original Publication Citation

Rappleye, D., & Haun, R. (2021). Production of Pure Vanadium: Industry Review and Feasibility Study of Electron Beam Melt Refining of V–Al Alloys. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 7(3), 755–766.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Springer Nature




Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering


Chemical Engineering

University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor