Using adaptive comparative judgment for student formative feedback and learning during a middle school design project


adaptive comparative judgement, middle school, design, design assessment, formative assessment


While design-based pedagogies have increasingly been emphasized, the assessment of design projects remains difficult due to the large number of potentially “correct” solutions. Adaptive comparative judgment (ACJ), an approach based on assessors/judges working through a series of paired comparisons and selecting the better of two items, has demonstrated high levels of inter-rater reliability with design projects. Efforts towards using ACJ for assessing design have largely centered on summative assessment. However, evidence suggests that ACJ may be a powerful tool for formative assessment and design learning when undertaken by students. Therefore, this study investigated middle school students participated in ACJ at the midpoint and conclusion of a design project, both receiving and providing feedback to/from their peers through the ACJ process. Findings demonstrated promise for using ACJ, as a formative assessment and feedback tool, to improve student learning and achievement.

Original Publication Citation

Bartholomew, S. R., Strimel, G. J., & Yoshikawa, E. (2019). Using Adaptive Comparative Judgment for Student Formative Feedback and Learning during a Middle School Open-ended Design Challenge. International Journal of Technology & Design Education, 29(2), 363-385.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



International Journal of Technology and Design Education




Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology



University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor