Core Family Process Measures in the NLSY97: Variation by Gender, Race, Income, and Family Structure


adolescence, family processes, family routines, family structure, monitoring, parental relationships, parent–youth relationships


This article uses data from the NLSY97 to provide a descriptive portrait of core family process measures—family routines, parent–youth relationship, parental monitoring, control and autonomy in parenting adolescents, parenting style, and the parents' marital relationship. This research contributes to our understanding of how family processes vary by gender, race, household income, and family structure. The comparisons were performed using analysis of variance. We found that adolescents with single mothers reported fewer family routines; adolescents reported better relationships with their mothers than their fathers; and adolescents reported less control over limit setting than their parents reported but reported more limit breaking than their parents. Finally, most adolescents reported their parents had an authoritative parenting style. Other findings with respect to gender, race, and income, as well as some interaction effects, were also indicated by the analysis.

Original Publication Citation

Jones-Sanpei, H., Day, R. D., and Holmes, E. K. (2009). Core family process measures in the NLSY97: Variation by race and socioeconomic conditions. Marriage and Family Review, 45, 140-167.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Marriage & Family Review




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Family Life

University Standing at Time of Publication

Associate Professor