helicopter parenting, parental control, oversolicitous parenting, parental involvement, emerging adulthood
The purpose of the current study was to establish a measure of helicopter parenting that was distinct from other forms of parental control, and to examine parental and behavioral correlates of helicopter parenting. Participants included 438 undergraduate students from four universities in the United States (Mage = 19.65, SD = 2.00, range = 18–29; 320 women, 118 men), and at least one of their parents. Analyses revealed that helicopter parenting loaded on a separate factor from both behavioral and psychological control, and that helicopter parenting was positively associated with behavioral and psychological control, but not at levels suggesting complete overlap. Results also revealed that helicopter parenting was positively associated with parental involvement and with other positive aspects of the parent–child relationship; but negatively associated with parental autonomy granting and school engagement. Discussion focuses on the implications of helicopter parenting for healthy development during emerging adulthood.
Original Publication Citation
Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Nelson, L. J. (2012). Black hawk down? Establishing helicopter parenting as a distinct construct from other forms of parental control during emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1177-1190.
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Padilla-Walker, Laura M. and Nelson, Larry J., "Black hawk down?: Establishing helicopter parenting as a distinct construct from other forms of parental control during emerging adulthood" (2012). Faculty Publications. 4687.
Journal of Adolescence
Family, Home, and Social Sciences
© 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
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