Chronic pain, correlation analysis, global efficiency, right amygdala, left hippocampus, TENS


Clinical reports of Calmare protocol efficacy suggest enhanced durability compared to TENS and the possibility changes in resting fMRI connectivity. The objective was to compare peripheral neuropathy pain relief and resting fMRI changes with Calmare and TENS treatments. Randomized double-blind trials performed in August 2015 and between August 2016 and November 2017, with 18 and 20 human peripheral neuropathy subjects, respectively. The initial trial examined effects of a single session while the latter trial examined the effects of a course of ten treatment sessions on consecutive weekdays. fMRI scans were examined for changes in blood flow correlations and connectivity. Subjective pain scores were similarly reduced by both Calmare and TENS treatments. In the ten-session study, the relief was prolonged, again similarly for both groups. The pain area relieved, which may be a more important metric than residual pain score, was reduced significantly more in the Calmare group than in the TENS group in post hoc analysis. After treatment, resting fMRI showed an increase in global efficiency and in correlation of activity between left hippocampus and right amygdala for both treatment modalities. Treatment with Calmare or TENS yields prolonged pain reduction and correlates with reproducible fMRI changes.

Original Publication Citation

Journal of Pain Management 13(2) 2020.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Nova Science Publishers




Life Sciences


Physiology and Developmental Biology

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor