psychotherapy, spirituality, practice, evidence, religion
Various approaches for incorporating spirituality into psychotherapy have been devel- oped, but few have been submitted to empirical scrutiny. The present article reports the results of a practice-based evidence (PBE) study, and demonstrates the value of PBE as a research strategy for the empirical evaluation of spiritually oriented psychothera- pies (SOPs). This approach involves examining the effectiveness of SOPs in routine settings, providing more externally valid results than randomized controlled trials. Outcome and process data for 304 clients at a private, religious, university counseling center were examined using a PBE methodology. Clinicians integrated a wide variety of spiritual interventions with various secular treatments. The therapist, low initial spiritual distress, and client desire to discuss spirituality in session predicted the frequency with which spiritual interventions were used. The results of multiple hier- archical linear models suggested that clients improved substantially in multiple do- mains of functioning. The frequency of use of spiritual interventions was not a significant predictor of differential growth trajectories for clients. This study provides an example of how PBE can be used to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of the types of spiritual interventions practitioners employ in their practices.
Original Publication Citation
Sanders, P. W., Richards, P. S., McBride, J. A., Lea, T., Hardman, R. K., Barnes, D. V. (2015). Processes and outcomes of theistic spiritually oriented psychotherapy: A practice-based evidence investigation. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 2 (3), 180-190.
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Sanders, Peter W.; Richards, P. Scott; McBride, Jason A.; Lea, Troy; Hardman, Randy K.; and Barnes, Daniel V., "Processes and Outcomes of Theistic Spiritually Oriented Psychotherapy: A Practice-Based Evidence Investigation" (2015). Faculty Publications. 3843.
Spirituality in Clinical Practice
David O. McKay School of Education
Counseling Psychology and Special Education
American Psychological Association
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