Development of the clinically adaptive multidimensional outcome survey


psychotherapy outcomes, routine outcome monitoring, practice-based evidence, validity, psychometrics, hermeneutics


Objective: Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) has been strongly endorsed by psychotherapy researchers, but has yet to achieve widespread implementation in clinical settings. This article describes the development of the Clinically Adaptive Multidimensional Outcome Survey (CAMOS), an innovative ROM system that allows for local adaptation while providing high quality data. Method: Three-hundred and four clients at a university counseling center and 211 female patients at an eating disorder treatment facility were administered the CAMOS at intake, and 118 took the CAMOS at both intake and discharge. Two models were developed and compared. Both models were developed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: A five-factor model was found to have the best model fit, internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Conclusions: The CAMOS has evidence to support its reliability and validity as a measure of various dimensions of distress. Distinctive tailoring features of the CAMOS compared to other ROM measures are described.

Original Publication Citation

Sanders, P. W., Richards, P. S., & McBride, J. A. (2017). Development of the clinically adaptive multidimensional outcome survey. Psychotherapy Research.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Psychotherapy Research




David O. McKay School of Education


Counseling Psychology and Special Education

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor