Music, Physical Education, POMS-Short Form, Mood


The incorporation of music in the physical education environment, during physical activity have been shown to be beneficial for participants. Lane (1999) created a conceptual framework focusing on asynchronous music, identifying four factors important to a given piece of music: 1) rhythm response, 2) musicality, 3) cultural impact, and 4) association. The study purpose was to investigate two conditions, with/without the incorporation of music, in the physical education environment on student moods in 948 junior high school students (501 males & 447 females) measured utilizing the Profile of Mood States (POMS) Short Form. Significant differences were observed in the mean scores of POMS between pre-intervention (without music) and post-intervention (with music) for total mood disturbance, tension, anger, fatigue, depression and confusion (all P-values < 0.0001), and significantly higher mean scores observed for esteem related affect and vigor (P-values < 0.0001). Results from this study and others, provide an impetus for physical education teachers and physical education teaching education (PETE) in incorporating music during games/activities for the purpose of improving student moods and subsequent activity levels.

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Peer-Reviewed Article

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David O. McKay School of Education


Teacher Education

University Standing at Time of Publication

Associate Professor