wind farm optimization, loads, fatigue, damage, annual energy production, wind turbines


The objective of this paper is to improve the annual energy production of a wind farm by optimizing the layout of a wind farm, while considering fatigue loads on turbines. In this paper, the loads are estimated using the edgewise bending moment computed using CCBlade, a steady-state blade element momentum code. The edgewise bending moment is then used to calculate fatigue damage using Miner’s rule. The fatigue damage is used to constrain the layout optimization problem. We show that our method can predict blade root damage with similar trends to damage calculated with other methods, such as a complex, computationally expensive large-eddy simulation and unsteady aeroelastic code. We also optimize wind farm layouts and show that, for a simple problem with two wind directions and ten turbines, the fatigue damage can be constrained without sacrificing wind farm power production.

Original Publication Citation

Stanley, A. P. J., King, J., and Ning, A., “Wind Farm Layout Optimization with Loads Considerations,” NAWEA/WindTech 2019 Conference, Amherst, MA, Oct. 2019.

Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date





Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology


Mechanical Engineering

University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor