Partner violence; HIV risk; Migrant women; Mobility


Objectives: Despite substantial research documenting the relationships between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and HIV risks among women worldwide, few studies have examined these relationships among the growing population of migrant women who are disproportionately affected by these co-occurring problems. This cross-sectional study examined associations between lifetime IPV victimization and HIV risks among female migrants in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Methods: Survey interviews and testing for HIV and Syphilis were conducted among a random sample of 225 female migrant vendors who were employed in one of the largest markets in Central Asia. Multivariate regression estimated associations between experiencing any lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV victimization measured by the revised conflict tactics scale (CTS2) and a number of HIV risks, controlling for potentially confounding sociodemographic variables, drug and alcohol use, and mobility patterns. Results: Of the total sample, 28.9% reported ever experiencing physical or sexual IPV. Multiple associations were found between a history of IPV victimization and a range of HIV risks, including sex with multiple partners, unprotected sex with a non-primary partner, a higher number of unprotected sex acts with non-primary partners, and a higher number of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Conclusions: The multiple associations found between IPV and HIV risks in this sample underscore the importance of redoubling women-specific HIV prevention efforts that consider both IPV and mobility.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

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AIDS & Clinical Research




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Social Work

University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor