Traumatic Events and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Male Market Workers in Central Asia


Migration, Potentially traumatic events, HIV sexual risk, Central Asia


We examined potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relationship between PTEs and HIV risk behaviors among male market workers in Kazakhstan, comparing Kazakhstani to external migrants. Using respondent-driven sampling, participants were 1342 male marketplace workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regressions were conducted. We found high prevalence of PTEs among participants, and significant differences between PTEs and HIV risk by migrant status. Kazakhstanis reporting 1–2 or three-or-more traumatic events were more likely to report engaging in sex trading, compared to Kazakhstanis who reported no PTEs (OR = 3.65, CI 1.20–11.11, p = 0.022; OR = 8.17, 95% CI 2.66–25.09, p = 0.000, respectively). Kazakhstanis who reported three-or-more PTEs were more likely to report unprotected sex (OR = 2.17, CI 2.17–3.89, p = 0.009). Results did not support this relationship among external migrants. Findings underscore the need for attention on services that address trauma and HIV risk among this population and more research to understand differences by migrant status.

Original Publication Citation

Michalopoulos, L.M., Jiwatram-Negron, T., Gilbert, L., Shaw, S.A., Brelsford, A., Terlikbayeva, A., Primbetova, S., El-Bassel, N. (available online Feb 2018). Traumatic events and HIV sexual risk behaviors among migrant and non-migrant male market workers in Central Asia. AIDS & Behavior. DOI:

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


AIDS and Behavior




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Social Work

University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor