quinoa, RT-PCR, 11S globulin, seed storage protein, gene expression


Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a food crop cultivated by subsistence farmers and commercial growers on the high Andean plateau, primarily in Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. Present interest in quinoa is due to its tolerance of harsh environments and its nutritional value. It is thought that the seed storage proteins of quinoa, particularly the 11S globulins and 2S albumins, are responsible for the relatively high protein content and ideal amino acid balance of the quinoa seed. Here we report the genomic and cDNA sequences for two 11S genes representing two orthologous loci from the quinoa genome. Important features of the genes and the proteins they encode are described on the basis of a comparison with homologous 11S sequences from other plant species. Gene expression and protein accumulation determined via reverse transcriptase real-time PCR and SDS-PAGE analyses are described. Additionally, we report the phylogenetic relationships between quinoa and 49 other species by using the coding DNA sequence for the well-conserved 11S basic subunit.

Original Publication Citation

International Journal of Plant Sciences 169.2(Feb 28): 281-291.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


University of Chicago Press




Life Sciences


Plant and Wildlife Sciences