Entrepreneurship, stakeholder management, nonmarket strategy, institutional theory, developing economies, new venture strategy, resource dependence, Latin America


This study examines how ventures can leverage relationships with heterogeneous government stakeholders to enhance survival in different institutional environments. We consider how the distinct resources provided from venture ties to military and political actors represent complementary strategic assets that differentially influence performance in varying political and economic environments as well as under conditions of violence and political conflict. Empirically, we examine the effect of these respective stakeholder relationships on new venture survival across 10 countries over a 65-year period. By distinguishing between the resources obtained through relationships with different types of government stakeholders and showing how the value of these resources varies in different contexts, this study contributes to nonmarket strategy and stakeholder management research and highlights the need for studies to take a pluralistic view of government stakeholders. The paper also presents managerial insights to firms seeking to address the prevalent challenges associated with political, economic, and physical security issues in developing and underdeveloped economies.

Original Publication Citation

Hiatt, Shon R. and Carlos, W. Chad and Sine, Wesley D., Manu Militari: The Institutional Contingencies of Stakeholder Relationships on Entrepreneurial Performance (November 7, 2017). Organization Science, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: or

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL




Marriott School of Management



University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor