identity development, spiritual identity, mental health outcomes, positive mental health, personal identities, spiritual self
Both researchers and practitioners have demonstrated considerable interest in identity development, and positive personal identities have been associated with numerous positive mental health outcomes. However, major theories of identity development have neglected the salience of spiritual identity, even though the early work of William James placed this as a central component of personality. This article reviews four major theories of identity development (cognitive, psychodynamic, systems, and narrative) and suggests spiritual identity parallels to these theories. A tentative model of spiritual identity development is presented. Implications for therapy and future research concerning spiritual identity development are discussed.
Original Publication Citation
Poll, J., & Smith, T. B. (2003). The spiritual self: Toward a conceptualization of spiritual identity development. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31, 129-142.
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Smith, Timothy B. and Poll, Justin B., "The Spiritual Self: Toward a Conceptualization of Spiritual Identity Development" (2003). All Faculty Publications. 2020.
University of Biola
David O. McKay School of Education
Counseling Psychology and Special Education
The final published version can be found here: http://journals.biola.edu/jpt/volumes/31/issues/2/articles/129
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