English as a second language, remittances, Italian education, nativism, immigration restriction, migrant support networks
This article uses archival evidence to study in depth the historical policies of Italy, as a classic sending state. Most of the mass migrations of a century ago came from multinational empires, but Italy was a recently formed independent state. Ambitious to benefit from emigration while assisting and protecting emigrants, Italy reached out to “Italians abroad” in several ways. For example, the state opened a low‐cost channel for remittances through a non‐profit bank; promoted Italian language education among Italian families abroad; supported Italian Chambers of Commerce Abroad; and subsidized religious missionary work among emigrants. Italy’s historical example of political innovation and diplomatic negotiation provides context, comparisons, and possibilities for rapidly changing sending state policies in the twenty‐first century.
Original Publication Citation
International Migration Review 41, n. 3
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Choate, Mark I., "Sending States’ Transnational Interventions in Politics, Culture, and Economics: The Historical Example of Italy" (2007). All Faculty Publications. 1959.
International Migration Review, Center for Migration Studies
Family, Home, and Social Sciences
© 2007 by the Center for Migration Studies of New York. All rights reserved. This is the author's submitted version of this article. The definitive version can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.erl.lib.byu.edu/doi/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2007.00092.x/full.
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