pedometer, physical education, middle school students, steps per minute


The purpose of this study was to compare pedometer steps per minute from five different curriculum units (basketball, volleyball, indoor soccer, pickle ball, and fitness activities) in middle school physical education classes as they relate to contributing to the recommended 12,000 to 16,000 steps per day for healthy children. Two hundred and thirty-two male and female middle school students participated in this study, 115 males and 117 females, respectively. Steps per minute were measured with pedometers in five curriculum units in middle school physical education classes; over 36 minutes of activity time. Overall, physical education classroom activities such as basketball, volleyball, indoor soccer, pickle ball, and fitness activities, measured during a 36 minutes class time frame, accounted for approximately 1% – 6% of the overall minimum 12,000 steps per day reported as appropriate for healthy children. Pedometers are becoming a useful tool for physical educators to compare sport activity levels in achieving the desired 12,000 to 16,000 steps a day for middle school children. With some modifications, physical educators can educate students and parents alike regarding pedometer use in helping to achieve recommended levels of physical activity and prescribed steps per day.

Original Publication Citation

Barney, D., Pleban, F., Pleban, J., & DeKuiper, J. (2014). Comparison of middle school students steps per minute (SPM) in five physical education curriculum units: An overall contribution to attaining the recommended step counts per day in healthy children. Asian Journal of Physical Education & Recreation, 19, (1), 6-13.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


Hong Kong Baptist University




David O. McKay School of Education


Teacher Education