wind plant optimization, wind turbine control, wind turbine wakes, wind plant systems engineering


This paper presents a wind plant modeling and optimization tool that enables the maximization of wind plant annual energy production (AEP) using yaw-based wake steering control and layout changes. In order to make predictions of wind plant AEP, necessary extensions of the original wind plant wake interaction model include the coupling with a detailed rotor model and a control policy for turbine blade pitch and rotor speed. This coupling allows the prediction of power production with wake effects throughout a range of wind speeds. Results of an optimization study on a wind plant based on the Princess Amalia Wind Park show increases of 5% in AEP by combined optimization of layout and wake steering control. Looking at the wind speed dependence of the possible power gains shows that power gains from wake steering control are highest in Region 1.5, and continue to be present to some extent for above-rated inflow speeds. The results show that layout optimization and wake steering are complementary to each other, in the sense that significant AEP improvements can be achieved with wake steering in a wind plant layout that is already optimized to reduce wake losses.

Original Publication Citation

Gebraad, P., Thomas, J. J., Ning, A., Fleming, P., and Dykes, K., “Maximization of the Annual Energy Production of Wind Power Plants by Optimization of Layout and Yaw-Based Wake Control,” Wind Energy, May 2016. doi:10.1002/we.1993

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL






Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology


Mechanical Engineering

University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor