metal multilayers, carbon multilayers, Raman spectroscopy, soft x-ray optics


Laser Raman spectroscopy has been found to be useful for characterizing amorphous semiconductor multilayers, especially the interfaces of multilayers. Recently, we have extended this technique to the characterization of magnetron sputtered multilayers commonly used as reflectors in soft x-ray optics. Unlike the multilayers previously studied which contained only semiconductors and dielectrics, these are generally semiconductor/metal multilayers. We report here on the Raman characterization of the most common class of multilayers used in soft x-ray optics, those that contain a high density metal like tungsten interspersed with layers of carbon. In all of the metal/carbon multilayers the dominate feature in the Raman spectra is due to a-C. The a-C spectra consists of a bread peak at about 1560 cm-1 (G-peak) and a shoulder at about 1400 cm-1 (D-peak). This can be deconvoluted with Gaussian line shapes to yield two peaks (one at about 1560 to 1570 cm-1 and the other at about 1380 to 1420 cm-1). Among the W/C multilayer samples peak positions and relative magnitudes changed little with carbon thickness over the range of 1 to 12 nm. Significant differences are, however, seen as the identity of the metal component is altered or, especially, as the preparations are varied. For example, the intensity ratio of the D-peak to G-peak was much larger for multilayer samples prepared under conditions of good plasma confinement.

Original Publication Citation

D.D. Allred, Wang Qi, and J. González-Hernández, "Characterization of Metal/Carbon Multilayers by Raman Spectroscopy," Layered Structures Heteroepitaxy, Superlattices, Strain and Metastability, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Series 16, 65 61 (199). [][].

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


Cambridge University Press (CPU); Materials Research Society (MRS)




Physical and Mathematical Sciences


Physics and Astronomy