Autophagy, as the name suggests, is a cellular process of self-eating in which cytoplasmic debris is engulfed by a double membrane vesicle dubbed the autophagosome and is ultimately degraded and recycled by proteases in the lysosome. The process is initiated by a group of core ATG proteins, including a multi-pass transmembrane protein called ATG9A. Although ATG9A has been shown to be essential for both stress induced and basal autophagy, its mechanism and interaction network remain largely illusive. Our current study employs BioID proteomics to identify a network of interactors, including regulators of membrane fusion and vesicle trafficking, such as TRAPP, EARP, GARP, exocyst, AP-1 and AP-4 complexes, as well as members of the ULK1 autophagy kinase complex. Further investigations confirm that two components of the ULK1 complex, ATG13 and ATG101, directly interact with ATG9A. Using CRISPR, we show that deletion of ATG13 or ATG101 disrupts ATG9A trafficking and causes an accumulation of ATG9A at p62/SQSTM1-positive ubiquitin clusters. Lentivirus reconstitution and split-mVenus approaches using an ULK1 binding deficient mutant of ATG13 reveal that ATG9A interacts with ATG13 and ATG101 in an ULK1-independent manner. Together, these data reveal ATG9A interactions in vesicle trafficking and autophagy pathways, including a role for an ULK1- independent ATG13 complex in regulating ATG9A.
College and Department
Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Chemistry and Biochemistry
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Poole, Daniel Morgan, "ATG9A and ATG13 Cooperate to Drive Basal Autophagy" (2022). Theses and Dissertations. 9421.
ATG9A, ATG13, ATG101, ULK1, p62, ubiquitin, macroautophagy, BioID, subcomplex