Joining of dissimilar metals is a process that is of interest in many fields, especially the automotive industry where lightweighting of the body structure is important. However, creating strong joints between dissimilar metals can be challenging. Friction bit joining (FBJ) is a solid-state method that uses a consumable bit to create a strong joint between dissimilar metals such as aluminum and steel. The purpose of this research is to gain understanding of how adjusting FBJ parameters affects the heating and pressure at the weld interface using a modeling approach, in order to better understand the bonding process. The questions guiding this research are: (1) What is the effect of spindle speed, plunge rate, and plunge depth on joint strength? (2) Can the proposed model be developed with enough fidelity to correlate the effect of these parameters on joint strength, within 10%? (3) What is the effect of the simulated vertical load profile on heating at the interface? (4) Does the load profile/heating relationship correlate to experimental joint strength to within 10%? A design of experiments approach found that the effect of spindle speed on joint strength is significant. Plunge rate did not have a significant effect, but the interaction between plunge rate and spindle speed was significant. A model was created, and multiple simulations were run to study these interactions. Initial simulations were run based on the input parameters used for the experiments. The simulation data was used to run a full second order regression was run which found that spindle speed had a significant effect on the experimental Z load. The data also revealed that spindle speed and plunge rate have a strong correlation between bonded area and temperature. Simulated versus experimental Z loads have a good correlation. Experimental bonded area had a slight correlation to joint strength trending in the correct direction. The shape of the simulated cross section did not fully match the experimental cross sections but was reasonable. Simulated bonded area and experimental bonded area also have a positive correlation. Despite some weaknesses, the current model does appear to be predictive enough that it can provide insight into other FBJ design configurations and material combinations in terms of temperature profiles and welding loads.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Mechanical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





friction bit joining, simulation, modeling, dissimilar materials joining



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Engineering Commons