This thesis presents techniques to implement analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) under an ultra-low-supply-voltage of 0.2 V to reduce the power consumption. The thesis proposes a dynamic bulk biasing circuit to adjust the PMOS bulk voltage to balance the NMOS and PMOS drain currents to guarantee functionality in the presence of process, voltage, and temperature variations. The dynamic bulk bias circuit is analyzed rigorously to show its functionality. This thesis also describes a new comparator suitable for a 0.2-V supply using ac-coupling, stacked input pairs, and voltage-boosted load capacitor. A 10-bit 5-kS/s successive-approximation-register (SAR) ADC in a 180-nm CMOS process with a supply voltage of 0.2 V demonstrates these ideas. The ADC exhibits a differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) within +0.42/-0.45 and +0.62/-0.67 LSB, respectively. The measured SFDR and SNDR at 5 kS/s with a Nyquist-frequency input are 65.9 dB and 52.1 dB, respectively. The entire ADC and dynamic bulk biasing circuitry consume 22 nW including leakage power to yield a figure-of-meirt (FoM) of 8.8 fJ/conv.-step. Measurements of multiple chips show the proposed dynamic bulk biasing fully recovers the ADC performance when the supply voltage is varied. The nW power consumption makes the design well suited for wireless sensor node and energy harvester applications.
College and Department
Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Electrical and Computer Engineering
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Petrie, Alexander Craig, "Ultra-Low-Supply-Voltage Analog-to-Digital Converters" (2019). Theses and Dissertations. 9122.
low voltage, dynamic bulk biasing, SAR ADC, subthreshold operation