Spaceborne scatterometers have measured the normalized radar cross section (RCS) of the earth's surface for several decades. Two frequencies, C- and Ku-band, have been used in designing scatterometers, such as with the Ku-band NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the C-band Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT). The scatterometer data record between C- and Ku-band has been disjoint for several decades due to the difficulties in cross calibration of sensors that operate at different frequencies and incidence angles. A model for volume scattering over the Amazon rainforest canopy that includes both the incidence angle and frequency dependence is developed to overcome this challenge in cross calibration. Several models exist for the σ0 incidence angle dependence, however, none of them are based on backscatter physics. This thesis develops a volume scattering model from a simple EM scattering model for cultural vegetation canopies and applies it to the volume scattering of the Amazon rainforest. It is shown that this model has lower variance than previously used models for the incidence angle dependence of σ0, and also enables normalization of σ0 with respect to the incidence angle. In addition, the frequency dependence of σ0 is discovered to be quite sensitive at Ku-band due to the distribution of leaf sizes in the Amazon rainforest. This may limit the accuracy of the model of the frequency dependence of σ0. Although the proposed frequency dependence model may be limited for cross calibrating between C- and Ku-band, it provides the groundwork for future studies.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Electrical and Computer Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





NSCAT, ASCAT, scatterometer, calibration, volume scattering



Included in

Engineering Commons