Crackle is a perceptual feature of supersonic jet noise that is related to the presence of acoustic shocks. The skewness of the time-derivative of the pressure waveform, or derivative skewness, is used as a metric indicative of crackle perception. The three main objectives of this work are: 1) Determine the potential spatial origin of crackle-related events in the near field of a high-performance military aircraft via an event-based beamforming method. 2) Investigate the potential for nonlinear, irregular shock reflections occurring along the near-field ground array and their implications on derivative skewness. 3) Relate the near-field, crackle-related events to far-field crackle perception by comparing nonlinearly propagated waveforms with measured far-field data. The event-based beamforming method used to determine source and far-field relationship of shock-like events utilizes the cross correlation between adjacent microphone waveform segments to determine the angle of propagation for an ensemble of crackle-related events within the waveform. The angle of propagation is traced towards the source for each event to find its apparent origin along the jet lipline. Beamforming results indicate that crackle-related events appear to originate anywhere from 2 to 14.5 m downstream along the jet lipline, with distributions that shift downstream and broaden with increasing engine power. The shock reflection classification method builds on the event-based beamforming method to calculate angle of incidence relative to the ground for an ensemble of shock events. The combination of angles of incidence and the measured shock strengths of the events reveal that irregular reflections are likely to occur over the majority of the array, which likely elevates the derivative skewness values due to steeper shocks with greater peak-to-peak pressures relative to off-ground measurements. Near-field, crackle-related events are extrapolated to the far field using a nonlinear propagation model to determine their prevalence in the far field. Cross-correlation coefficients of waveform segments centered about the propagated events indicates that for farther aft angles, near-field events are more related to far-field measurements. Waveform observations show that shock-like events in the near field that are more spiked in nature tend not propagate into the far field. However, near-field, large-derivative events with broader, high-pressure peaks nonlinearly steepen and form shocks in the far field that are likely contribute to crackle perception.



College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Physics and Astronomy



Date Submitted


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supersonic jet noise, crackle, aeroacoustics, shock