Flow measurements were made on two highly loaded, low pressure turbine blade configurations in a low-speed, linear cascade facility. The L1M blade has a design Zweifel coefficient of 1.34 with a peak cp near 47% cx (mid-loaded) and the Pack B blade has a design Zweifel coefficient of 1.15 with a peak cp at 63% cx (aft-loaded). Flow velocity and surface pressure measurements were taken for Rec=20,000 and 3% inlet freestream turbulence. For these operating conditions, a large separation bubble forms on the blade suction surface, beginning at 59% cx and reattaching at 86% cx on the L1M blade and a non-reattaching bubble beginning at 68% cx on the Pack B. A spanwise row of discrete vortex-generating jets located at 59% cx on the Pack B and 50% cx on the L1M were used as a separation control device and were pulsed at a frequency of 5 Hz with a duty cycle of 25%. The Pack B with its open separation bubble proved to be a better candidate for VGJ control than the L1M with its closed separation bubble. Further studies were made on the Pack B blade comparing wake and VGJ effects. A wake generator was used to simulate the periodic passing of upstream wakes through the blade passage for the Pack B configuration. The wake passing frequency of 4.5Hz was set to match a typical engine flow coefficient for a low pressure turbine. Data were taken using PIV and a hot-film anemometer mounted on a blade following device. Velocity, turbulence, and intermittency measurements were made along the suction surface of the blade to characterize the bubble dynamics and transitional behaviors for both the presence of unsteady wakes and pulsing VGJs. The wakes caused early breakdown of the separated free shear layer resulting in a thinning of the separation region. The VGJs caused an upstream disturbance which convects downstream, temporarily pushing off the separation bubble. Overall, both wakes and VGJs suppress the size of the steady-state separation bubble, though through different mechanisms. Three-dimensional aspects of the jet disturbance are studied by investigating the effects of the VGJs at two spanwise locations.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Mechanical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





active flow control, VGJ, vortex generator jets, wakes, transition, hot film, separation