This thesis presents the integration of atomic vapor cells with anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) fabricated on silicon chips. These potentially provide a compact platform for a number of optical applications, including the study of quantum coherence effects such as electromagnetically induced transparency and single-photon nonlinearities, as well as frequency stabilization standards. The use of hollow waveguides allows for light propagation in low index (vapor) media with compact mode areas. ARROWs make particularly attractive waveguides for this purpose because they can be interfaced with solid core waveguides, microfabricated on a planar substrate, and are effectively single mode. ARROW fabrication utilizes an acid-removed sacrificial core surrounded by alternating plasma deposited dielectric layers, which act as Fabry-Perot reflectors. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARROW as a vapor cell, a platform consisting of solid and hollow core waveguides integrated with rubidium vapor cells was developed. A variety of sealing techniques were tested for vapor cell integration with the ARROW chip and for compatibility with rubidium. Rubidium was used because it is of particular interest for studying quantum coherence effects. Liquefied rubidium was transferred from a bulk supply into an on-chip vapor cell in an anaerobic atmosphere glovebox. Optical absorption measurements confirmed the presence of rubidium vapor within the hollow waveguide platform. Further analysis of the measurements revealed high optical density of rubidium atoms in the hollow core. Saturated absorption spectroscopy measurements verified that the on-chip integrated vapor cell was suitable for common precision spectroscopy applications.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Electrical and Computer Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





integrated waveguides, hollow waveguides, vapor-cells, quantum coherence, atomic absorption, spectroscopy