Quantitative understanding of frictional phenomena between the tool and the workpiece is essential for accurate modeling of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. Two methods of measuring the tool-workpiece interface are proposed that allow frictional measurements to be made under extreme conditions. The first method uses a cylindrically curved surface in contact with a flat plate. The ranges of temperature, velocity, and normal force used in this method are 100–600°C, 0.38–2.0 m/s (75–400) surface feet per minute (SFM)), and 450–2700 N (100–600 lbf), respectively. Data are gathered at different parameter level combinations to provide enough data to create an empirical model representing the data. Two friction modes with distinct characteristics are observed. One mode, Coulomb-Amonton's friction, has frictional force proportional to normal force, while the other mode, plastic shear deformation friction, has frictional force independent of normal force. A linear statistical model has been developed to characterize each of the frictional modes for the polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tool and 1018 steel work piece interface as functions of temperature, velocity, and normal force. Two linear models were chosen. A statistical method called membership function regression was used to determine the coefficients of these two models. The resulting model has a correlation of (Predicted Force) = 1.0445(Measured Force) with an R^2 value of 0.83. The second method was an attempt to measure friction with a measurable contact area at a range of temperatures, velocities, and normal pressures. This method rubs the end of a cylindrical rod with a concentric cylindrical pocket against a flat plate. This method caused precessions of the tool on the workpiece. As a result of this precession, plastic shear deformation friction measurements are invalid. However, Coulomb-Amonton's friction is still valid. The experiments of the PCBN-stainless steel interface found that Coulomb-Amonton's friction did not depend on temperature and velocity. In addition, no plastic shear deformation friction was identified using this method and this interface combination.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Mechanical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





friction stir welding, PCBN, friction, deformation, membership function regression, stainless steel