My dissertation is primarily divided into two parts. The first deals with the preparation, functionalization, and characterization of carbon surfaces prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) as substrates for bioarrays. Part two discusses applications of XPS peak fitting in surface chemical analysis. Chapter 1, the introduction, includes (i) a discussion of the construction of bioarrays and the preparation of sputtered surfaces, e.g., by DCMS and HiPIMS, and also functionalization (bioconjugate) chemistry with special emphasis on the importance of covalent functionalization of surfaces, and (ii) a discussion of the surface characterization techniques and accompanying analysis methods I have primarily used, which include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-ambient pressure XPS (NAP-XPS), XPS peak fitting, and contact angle goniometry (wetting). Chapter 2 discusses the preparation, characterization, and functionalization of DCMS and HiPIMS carbon surfaces for bioarrays. Here, two functionalization chemistries are explored, where the activity of DCMS and HiPIMS carbon towards amidation and amination is compared. Chapter 3 focuses on the use of Gaussian-Lorentzian sum (GLS) and Gaussian-Lorentzian product (GLP) line shapes in the context of peak fitting XPS narrow scans. This discussion includes a comparison of the GLS and GLP line shapes with the Voigt function. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the applications of XPS peak fitting in materials characterization. Chapter 4 talks about XPS data analysis in the context of the chemical vapor deposition of various aminosilanes and their effect on peptide stability and purity. Chapters 5 describes the surface chemical analysis of various materials by NAP-XPS, including accompanying data analysis and/or peak fitting. The materials probed here cannot be analyzed at ultra-high vacuum by conventional XPS, hence, they are analyzed by NAP-XPS. Chapter 5 is divided into 5 sections. Section 5.1.1 discusses the characterization and analysis of a solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by peak fitting the C 1s and O 1s peak envelopes. Section 5.1.2 discusses the analysis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) at different pressures. Here, the effect of increasing background pressure and X-ray illumination time on the equivalent widths of the F 1s narrows scans is shown. Environmental charge compensation is also discussed here. Section 5.1.3 includes the analysis of poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) (PBLG), where the C 1s and O 1s peak envelopes were peak fitted to determine/confirm the structure and composition of this polymer. Section 5.1.4 contains an analysis and comparison of three different human hair samples: (i) untreated, (ii) colored, and (iii) bleached. Here, a comparison of the Si 2p, S 2p, and C 1s peaks illustrates the effects of the different treatments. Section 5.1.5 shows the characterization and analysis of liquid and solid phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Chapter 6 presents conclusion of my work and discusses future work.



College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Chemistry and Biochemistry



Date Submitted


Document Type





X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, near ambient pressure – XPS, NAP-XPS, peak fitting, DCMS, HiPIMS, sputtering, GLP, GLS, Bioarrays, PTFE, PBLG, BSA, PBS