Earthquake-induced liquefaction can cause severe damage to infrastructure is a serious concern in civil engineering practice. Post-liquefaction settlement is one of the common effects of liquefaction. The ability to predict and quantify post-liquefaction free-field settlement is a crucial part of seismic design. Many approaches have been developed during the past 50 years to perform liquefaction hazard analysis. The performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) center is a probabilistic framework that can provide a more accurate and complete seismic hazard analysis than other traditional methods. However, the PBEE framework is not widely used in routine projects due to its complexity.Previous researches have been performed to develop simplified performance-based procedures that can combine the simplicity of a traditional method and the accuracy of the full performance-based method. Unfortunately, these simplified performance-based procedures are only available for SPT. With the increase use of CPT, there is a need to develop simplified performance-based procedures for CPT. This study develops simplified performance-based procedures for the assessment of post-liquefaction free-field settlement for CPT, using the Boulanger and Idriss (2014) and the Ku et al. (2012) triggering models. The Juang et al. (2013) model, which is a probabilistic version of the Ishihara and Yoshimine (1992) model, is used in this study to performance free-field settlement calculations. The simplified procedure is based on the idea of liquefaction reference parameter maps. Reference values obtained from these parameter maps are then adjusted, using correction equations, to site-specific conditions. This study presents the deviations of the correction equations for the simplified performance-based procedure. The simplified procedure will then be validated in which 18 cities across the United States are analyzed using both the simplified procedure and the full performance-based procedure. The simplified performance-based procedure is shown to reasonably estimate the results of the full performance-based procedure. Finally, a study is performed to compare the accuracy and consistency of the simplified performance-based and the conventional pseudo-probabilistic procedures. The simplified performance-based procedure is found to provide better approximations of the full performance-based procedure with more consistency and precision.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Civil and Environmental Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





liquefaction, settlement, performance-based earthquake engineering, probabilistic, CPT, map-based procedure