Video modeling (VM) is a video-based intervention (VBI) that has been implemented with individuals with disabilities to teach various life and educational skills. It is a tool that allows learners to watch a target skill modeled on a pre-recorded video. The learner is able to re-watch a new skill as many times as needed, and the teacher is given the flexibility needed to work with multiple students while providing individualized instruction. The participant in this study was a 13-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and intellectual disability (ID). The participant was enrolled in a life skills class at his junior high school and received special education services under the classification of TBI. This study used a delayed multiple-baseline, across-skills design to examine increased consistency for completing different sports skills in physical education (PE), including a basketball chest pass, football forward pass, and soccer inside foot pass. VM was used successfully to increase task completion rates for all three sports skills. The participant was able to perform the basketball chess pass with 75% to 87.5% accuracy, and the football forward pass and soccer pass with 87.5% accuracy. Prior to the study he could only complete each skill with less than 25% accuracy. Future research is needed on larger samples to empirically demonstrate the efficacy of VM to improve PE skills for special needs students.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Counseling Psychology and Special Education



Date Submitted


Document Type



video-based interventions, video modeling, developmental disabilities, traumatic brain injury, intellectual disabilities, physical education.