The objective of this research was to explore and demonstrate the production andperformance of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebar manufactured on a continuous threedimensionalbraiding machine for use as reinforcement in concrete structures. Differentconfigurations of fiberglass/epoxy composite cylindrical rebar rods were manufactured,embedded in concrete, and tested in axial tension to identify the relationships betweenmanufacturing parameters and tensile pull-out strength of the rebar. The strength of the bondbetween concrete and FRP rebar was investigated using the pull-out test detailed by ACI 440.3R-12. The rebar was a No. 4 size and produced by combining multiple tows of fiberglass/epoxyprepreg to form the core of cylindrical rods which were consolidated using spirally-woundaramid consolidation fibers. The manufactured rebar was cured at 121°C (250°F) as specified bythe material manufacturer, TCR Composites. Preliminary research performed on carbon/epoxyrebar guided the process of developing a test matrix based on multiple variables. Primaryvariables investigated included the nature of the consolidation fiber material (dry vs prepreg),and the use of sand coating as a secondary process. The rebar samples were cast in 200 mm x200 mm x 200 mm (8.0 in x 8.0 in x 8.0 in) concrete cubes to investigate bond strength. A testfixture was designed and fabricated for use on a universal tensile testing machine. Standard 12.7mm (0.5 in) diameter steel rebar and a commercially comparable fiberglass rebar were alsotested to provide baseline values. Measurements were collected at both the free and loaded endsof the rebar with free-end results being a more accurate presentation of rebar bond stress.Results showed that the bond strength was 6-13% higher for the free-end for rebarconsolidated with a dry tow compared to prepreg tow consolidated rebar. When sand was added,dry tow consolidated sand-coated samples showed higher bond stress in the range of 15-26% forthe free-end than samples consolidated with a dry tow but excluded sand coating. Samplesconsolidated with prepreg tow and coated with sand showed higher bond stress in the range of43-58% for the free-end compared to prepreg tow no-sand coating samples. Overall, for therebar manufactured on the 3-D braiding machine, the prepreg tow consolidated rebar samplesrecorded the highest bond strength values with a maximum average bond stress value of 15.2MPa (2.26 ksi). The dry tow sand consolidated rebar recorded a maximum average bond stressvalue of 11.4 MPa (1.65 ksi). The rebar purchased from American Fiberglass Rebar recorded amaximum average bond stress of 12.0 MPa (1.74 ksi) while the maximum average bond stress ofsteel rebar was 13.1 MPa (1.90 ksi). Results demonstrated that quality composite rebar can bemanufactured using the 3-D braiding machine and that consolidating the rebar with a prepregtow and coating the surface with sand resulted in a rebar which bonded well with concretecompared to commercialized FRP and steel rebar.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Civil and Environmental Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





Fiberglass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy, prepreg tow, FRP, rebar, composite, sand