The phase and amplitude gradient estimator (PAGE) method has proven successful in improving the accuracy of measured energy quantities over the p-p method, which has traditionally been used, in several applications. One advantage of the PAGE method is the use of phase unwrapping, which allows for increased measurement bandwidth above the spatial Nyquist frequency. However, phase unwrapping works best for broadband sources in free-field environments with high coherence. Narrowband sources often do not have coherent phase information over a sufficient bandwidth for a phase unwrapping algorithm to unwrap properly. In fact, phase unwrapping processing can cause significant error when there is no coherent signal near and above the spatial Nyquist frequency. However, for signals at any frequencies up to the spatial Nyquist frequency, the PAGE method provides correct intensity measurements regardless of the bandwidth of the signal. This is an improved bandwidth over the traditional method. For narrowband sources above the spatial Nyquist frequency, additional information is necessary for the PAGE method to provide accurate acoustic intensity. With sufficient bandwidth and a coherence of at least 0.1 at the spatial Nyquist frequency, a relatively narrowband source above the spatial Nyquist frequency can be unwrapped accurately. One way of using extra information, called the extrapolated PAGE method, uses the phase of a tone below the spatial Nyquist frequency and an assumption of a propagating field, and therefore linear phase, to extrapolate the phase above the spatial Nyquist frequency. Also, within certain angular and amplitude constraints, low-level broadband noise can be added to the field near a source emitting a narrowband signal above the spatial Nyquist frequency. The low-level additive broadband noise can then provide enough phase information for the phase to be correct at the frequencies of the narrowband signal. All of these methods have been shown to work in a free-field environment.



College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Physics and Astronomy



Date Submitted


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acoustic intensity, narrowband, phase unwrapping, sine wave, sawtooth wave, fan noise, spatial Nyquist frequency, bandwidth extension