This study applied dual processing theory, the theory of working memory, and the theory of cue summation to examine how the video and audio in a television news story interact with or against each other when the story uses pull quote graphics to convey key information to viewers. Using eye-tracking, the study produced visual depictions of exactly what viewers look at on the screen when the words in the reporter's voice track match the text in the pull quote graphic verbatim, when the reporter summarizes the text in the graphic, and when the reporter's voice track ignores the text in the pull quote. The study tested the effect on recall when viewers were presented with these three story conditions—high redundancy, medium redundancy, and low redundancy, respectively. Key findings included the following: first, that stories with low redundancy resulted in lower recall and memory sensitivity scores (a measure of memory strength) than pull quotes that the reporter either summarized or read verbatim on the air. Second, it was found that neither high-redundancy nor medium-redundancy stories were superior or inferior to the other when looking at the effect on recall and memory sensitivity. And finally, in high-, medium-, and low-redundancy conditions, subjects stated that they relied more on the reporter's narration than the pull quote to get information. The study states possible implications for news producers and reporters and suggests future research in the broadcast television news industry.



College and Department

Fine Arts and Communications; Communications



Date Submitted


Document Type





dual processing theory, working memory, cue summation, memory sensitivity, signal detection theory, television news, pull quote, eye-tracking, redundancy, graphics



Included in

Communication Commons