Since the 1960s, researchers have been exploring how the design of the built environment impacts the health and well-being of occupants and users. By the 1980s, further research began to focus on healthcare facilities in particular and how design could influence patient healing and medical staff performance (Alfonsi, 2014). Evidence-Based Design (EBD) is "the process of basing decisions about the built environment on credible research to achieve the best possible outcomes" (CHD, 2016). The desired outcomes of Evidence-Based Design recommendations include improvements in the following: patient healing, patient experience and comfort, medical staff performance, and medical staff job satisfaction (CHD, 2017). Extensive research has been done on the subject of EBD; however, the question remains whether or not the latest research findings are being utilized by the design and construction industries in practice. The purpose of this research is to determine whether or not the latest scientific knowledge and research findings are being implemented into hospital renovation projects by the healthcare design and construction industries. A list of recommendations from existing EBD literature was compiled. Construction documents from 30 recent healthcare facility renovation projects across the United States were then obtained and analyzed. The findings indicate that EBD recommendations are being adopted in practice at consistently high levels. These findings also reveal that there are still areas of potential improvement which could inform those who influence or determine building and design codes, standards, and guidelines. The results are instructive to owners, designers, and contractors by providing a glimpse into how well the industry is recognizing and implementing known best practices. The findings likewise open up new opportunities for further research which could lead to additional improvement in the healthcare facilities of the future.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Technology



Date Submitted


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evidence-based design, healthcare construction, hospital construction, healthcare design, hospital design, EBD in healthcare, healthcare design and construction, hospital design and construction, David S. Whitaker