Internationally, Bolivia has the largest llama population followed by Peru. This makes our country a power in this renewable resource for working and generating economic development. This is mainly because of the quality of llama meat, which has nutritional properties superior to other animal species. The development and research in our country of llamas is not very significant. But in other countries advanced studies have been done for years, specifically in the area of reproduction, which represents problems for intensive repopulation because of singular characteristics of semen and copulation. The present research work was done at the UAC in Tiahuanacu (U.C.B.) and is titled: “Determination of protein profile and presence of antibodies in llama seminal plasma at three, four, and five years of age.” At different dates of semen collection, protein fractions were determined, their molecular weights, presence of antibodies and concentrations of protein fractions. This determined the presence of possible components of seminal plasma caused by low percentages of successful breeding for these animals. In the field work, a series of tests were done so the male would respond to the artificial collection of semen. It began with the mannequin technique (Peruvian) and others, which had no results. The objective was obtained with the mannequin technique for the llama group, which was accepted by 80% of the males. The lab work consisted of separating the seminal plasma from the semen with a centrifuge. Electrophoresis was used to determine protein fractions. This helps to determine the number of protein fractions, their molecular weights, immunoglobulins and their concentrations. The highest concentrations of protein fractions were found in four and five year old animals with 15 to 18 protein fractions. In weekly semen collections the last week showed 18 fractions (four year old animals). These could possibly play an important role in nutrition, capacitation and protection of spermatozoa. The molecular weights of the proteins in seminal plasma vary from one animal to another and dates of collection. The extreme ranges are from 2,000 to 150,000 Daltons. Five year old animals have higher molecular weights with respect to younger animals. With respect to immunoglobulins or antibodies, proteins with molecular weights of 150,000 to 152,500 Daltons were found in animals from three to five years old. Immunoglobulins G in llama seminal plasma were found using the radial immune diffusion technique. Concentrations of protein fractions are variable with extreme ranges from 11.65 to 0.03 mg/ml of seminal plasma. These variations are heterogeneous in the age of the animals as well as in the collections dates. There is a slight increase in five year old animals in the third week of semen collection. The finals results of the proteins fractions and their molecular weights show that there are antibodies in llama seminal plasma. These play an important role in spermatic viability, which is why this subject should continue to be researched to determine its specific function and look for alternatives to isolate and neutralize these antibodies and increase the fertility indexes of these animals.



College and Department

Life Sciences; Plant and Wildlife Sciences



Date Submitted


Document Type





Llama productivity, llamas, reproduction, Bolivia



Additional Information

Thesis (Zootechnical Engineer)--Bolivian Catholic University "San Pablo". Rural AcademicUnit, Tiahuanacu. Animal Science Department, 2002


La Paz (Bolivia)