The principal is an important key to school success and student achievement (Anderson & Togneri, 2003; Met & Lorenz, 1997). Considering the role of principals of dual immersion schools, few studies have considered factors leading to their success (Nicholson, Harris-Johhn, & Schimmel, 2005; Simmons et al., 2007). With current advancements in skill mapping and meta-analyses, the understanding of skill and trait theory has improved, greatly enhancing the researcher's ability to effectively identify a leader's skills and traits (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman, & Humphrey, 2011; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005; Scouller, 2011; Zaccaro, 2007). A clearer understanding of the skills and traits dual immersion principals need would help other dual immersion principals and the districts and states that train these principals (Waters, Marzano, & McNulty, 2003). Through a set of interviews and surveys, the researcher explored themes and patterns based on principals' opinions of the skills and traits they use. The researcher compared one-way dual immersion schools with two-way dual immersion schools in an effort to distinguish how principals' opinions vary between these two contrasting immersion paradigms. An analysis of principal responses from the surveys and interviews revealed that a number of traits and skills identified in previous research are also important for dual immersion principals. In addition, the research found a number of new skills and traits unique to the dual immersion context. This research also found that many skills and traits of dual immersion principals varied between the contexts of one-way and two-way. These findings indicate an important shift in our understanding of the role of principal and the ways that dual immersion principals are trained.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Educational Leadership and Foundations



Date Submitted


Document Type





dual immersion, bilingual education, educational leadership, professional learning communities, professional development, foreign language education, skills-based leadership theory, trait theory of leadership, leadership responsibilities